When we think of Paris, Rome, Madrid, Lisbon and other European capitals, we think of them as “cities”. Modern London is not one city; it is a number of cities, towns, and villages. Today the metropolis of Greater London covers some 610 square miles (1,580 sq.km.) and the suburbs of London Main Cities of Great Britain continue even beyond this area.
London is situated on both banks of the river Thames, it is the largest city in Britain and one of the largest in the world.
London dominates the life of Britain. It is a big port and important commercial, manufacturing and cultural centre.
Its Main Cities of Great Britain most important boroughs are the City, the West End, Westminster, and the East End.
The City of London is an area with a long and exciting history. It is the financial and business centre of the UK with many banks, offices and the Stock Exchange. About half a million people work in the City Main Cities of Great Britain but only less than 6,000live here. The City of London is a miniature city within a world-class capital. It has its own cathedral, concert halls and theatres. Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St.Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London. St.Paul’s Cathedral was built in Main Cities of Great Britain the 17th century by Christopher Wren. The Tower of London has been used as a royal palace, an observatory, an arsenal, a state prison and a fortress. Now it is a museum.
The West End can be called the shopping and entertainment centre of London. It includes Trafalgar Square, Regent Street and Main Cities of Great Britain Bond Street, and the entertainment centres of Soho, Piccadilly Circus, Leicester Square and Shaftesbury Avenue. The West End is the fashionable quarter of the largest department stores, cinemas and hotels. There are about 40 theatres, several concert halls, many museums including the British Museum, and the best art galleries. Here are the historical palaces as well as Main Cities of Great Britain the famous parks. Among them are Hyde Park with itsSpeaker’s Corner, Kensington Gardens andSt.James’ Park.
Westminsteris a part of London that has long been connected with
royalty and government. It includes Buckingham Palace, home of the monarch, and the Houses of Parliament with its famous clock-tower, known as Big Main Cities of Great Britain Ben. Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands Westminster Abbey. It was built in the middle of the 19th century. Westminster Abbey is the place where coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried here as well as some other great people. In Poet’s Main Cities of Great Britain Corner there are monuments to such famous people as Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton, James Watt, William Thackeray, and Charles Dickens. There are also memorials to William Shakespeare, Robert Burns, George Byron, Walter Scottand to the great American poetLongfellowin the cathedral.
The most important ministries and departments of the civil service are in Main Cities of Great Britain Whitehall, the broad street which leads down to the Houses of Parliament; and off Whitehall at № 10 Downing Street, stands the house where the Prime Minister lives and the Cabinet meets.
The East End is the district of docks and markets. It is especially famous as the centre of the clothing industry Main Cities of Great Britain. The East End’s markets are famous throughout the world.
London, Britain’s colourful capital, is full of things to see and do, with superb shopping, world-famous sights and a wealth of excellent entertainment and nightlife.
At the geographical heart of England is Birmingham, the second largest city of England Main Cities of Great Britain, and of the principal industrial centres of the British Isles. It is a metal working and an automobile centre. Like most of great cities, Birmingham has a university, many colleges, a famous museum and art gallery.
Leeds and Sheffield
Leeds and Sheffield are industrial cities. Leeds has many industries: modern Main Cities of Great Britain engineering, furniture. Leeds has three theatres, an art gallery, and two museums.
Sheffield is situated on the Don river. It is known for its cutlery silverware and steel products.
Liverpool is the birthplace of the Beatles. There is a monument to the famous group in Liverpool. Every year in spring festivals Main Cities of Great Britain are held there. Liverpool has a lot of docks. Liverpool is a busy port and commerce centre.
Manchester is the industrial capital of the North of England. Manchester is the fifth largest port in Great Britain. Its mills and factories produce electronic machines, chemical and plastic materials and other things. Manchester is Main Cities of Great Britain also an important cultural centre.
Cambridge is one of the best-known towns in the world. The principal reason for its fame is its University which started during the 13th century. Today there are many colleges there. The most famous is Kings, because of its magnificent chapel.
Oxford is a town that Main Cities of Great Britain grew up near the river Thames. Oxford is an international town because people from many parts of the world come to study at its university. The Universitywas established in 1249.
Stratford-upon-Avon is an attractive town famous as the birthplace of William Shakespeare in the 16th century. In 1599 the famous Globe Theatre was Main Cities of Great Britain built on the south bank of the river Thames. It was in this theatre that most of his famous plays were performed.
Resorts such as Blackpool, Brighton and Bournemouth, have fine sandy beaches, good shopping facilities and an atmosphere of fun and merriment.
Edinburgh is Scotland’sgracious capital cityand one of Main Cities of Great Britain the most beautiful cities in Europe. There are many sights in Edinburgh. One of the most interesting things to see is the famous Edinburgh Castle.
Glasgow is the biggest city in Scotland and the third largest in the UK. It is famous for its machinery, textiles, ships and whisky. Glasgow is a very ancient Main Cities of Great Britain city and there are many places of interest in it. Glasgow is the heart of arts in Scotland and hosts wonderful festivals such as the Mayfestand International Jazz Festival. The word “glasgow” means a fine green region. There are many parks there (about 70), a picture gallery, a museum, and more Main Cities of Great Britain. There is a Universityin Glasgow founded in the 15th century. Glasgow is the sister city of Rostov-on-Don.
Cardiff, the capital of Wales, is a modern city with a rich history. Its many attractions includeCardiff Castle, the National Museum of Wales, the outstanding Welsh Folk Museum at St.Fagans, etc. Cardiff is the Main Cities of Great Britain most important Welsh seaport.
The Political System
The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (a king or a queen) as its Head of State. The powers of the monarch are not defined precisely. Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. The Queen’simage appears Main Cities of Great Britain on stamps, notes and coins. It is her government, her armed forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process Main Cities of Great Britain. The monarch can only reign with the support of Parliament.
Parliament consists of two chambers - the House of Commons and theHouse of Lords. Parliament and the monarch have different roles in the government of the country. They only meet together on symbolic occasions such as the coronation of a new monarch or Main Cities of Great Britain the opening of Parliament. In reality, the House of Commons is the only one of the three which has true power.
The House of Commons is мейд up of 651 Members of Parliament (MPs), each of whom represents an area of the United Kingdom. They are elected at a general election. The election campaign Main Cities of Great Britain usually lasts about three weeks.
Everyone over the age of 18 can vote in an election. Parliamentary elections must be held every five years.
The House of Lords has more than 1,000members, although only about 250 take an active part in the work of the House. The House consists of hereditary Main Cities of Great Britain and life peers and peeresses, a certain number of Irish and Scottish peers, the Archbishops of Canterbury and York, bishops and judges. They debate a bill after it has been passed by the House of Commons. A decision is accepted if a quorum of three Lords is Main Cities of Great Britain present. The House sits, on average, for about 140days in each session. The Lord Chancellor is chairman and sits on a special seat called the Woolsack. The House of Lords is the only non-elected second chamber among all the democracies in the world, and some people in Great Britain would Main Cities of Great Britain like to abolish it.
After each general election the King or Queen invites the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons to become Prime Minister and form theGovernment. As leaders of their political parties and leaders of the country, Prime Ministers are powerful and important people. They are powerful Main Cities of Great Britain because they have the majority support in Parliament and they can choose their own ministers and government.
The PMchooses a committee of ministers called the Cabinet. This is мейд up of a selection of senior MPs from the House of Commons and some members of the House of Lords.
The Cabinet Main Cities of Great Britain meets at the Prime Minister’s house – 10 Downing Street.
The Cabinet works as a team and all ministers must accept the decisions of the “group”. Cabinet meetings are held in private and the details must remain secret for at least 30 years.
The British political scene is dominated by Main Cities of Great Britain a two-party system: one party in power, the other in opposition. They are the Conservative (1867) and the Labour Parties (1900). The Conservative Party, often called the Tory Party (“tory” means an Irish highwayman), can be broadly described as the party of the middle and upper classes.
The Labour Party, on the Main Cities of Great Britain other хэнд, has always had strong links with the trade unions and receives financial support from them.
Among the other parties are theLiberal Party (SLD, 1988); the Scottish National Party (1928); Plaid Cymru, the Welsh Nationalist Party, (1925); the Communist Party of Britain (1988); the Communist Party of Great Britain (1920); the National Front and Democratic Left.